Elizabeth M. Bailey, The Energy Journal, Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 51-60
Econometric analysis shows that most of the western United States may be seen as a single market for wholesale electricity. However, conditions that create congestion in the transmission system - such as high hydroelectic flows in the Pacific Northwest, transmission outages and deratings, and high demand for power - can cause the scope of the market to narrow at times.